Impressive strides have been made in the atomistic modeling of lubrication, notably in the case of very thin (nanoscale) flows. However, from an engineering point of view, particularly as it pertains to design, practical predictive ability seems far away. Continuum approaches are surprisingly robust and appear to have validity to the nanometer range, although the Newtonian fluid model may need to be modified to account for non-classical behavior. Various fluid rheological models are discussed below as they pertain to lubrication in complex flow applications.

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