Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on cross-sectional samples from tapered roller bearing cone raceways. The bearings were tested in mineral oil with and without sulfur- and phosphorus-containing gear oil additives. Focused ion beam techniques were used for TEM specimen preparation. Imaging, electron diffraction, and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy revealed the structure and composition of near surface material (depth < 500 nm) and surface layers.

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