A large number of apples are wasted each year due to bruising. A novel ultrasonic technique has been used to assess apple contacts to provide a greater understanding of the bruising process and to provide validation for an FE apple model which will be used as a design tool to optimise apple packaging to reduce the advent of bruising.
Measuring Pressure in Apple Contacts
Lewis, R, Yoxall, A, Marshall, MB, & Canty, LA. "Measuring Pressure in Apple Contacts." Proceedings of the World Tribology Congress III. World Tribology Congress III, Volume 1. Washington, D.C., USA. September 12–16, 2005. pp. 869-870. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/WTC2005-63500
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