Four-ball EP tests were completed for lubricating oils containing the synergistic combination of overbased calcium sulfonate and sulfurized olefin. Using XANES spectroscopy we were able to differentiate between FeS, RSO3 and SO42− in the sulfur K-edge and L-edge spectra. It was found while the sulfurized olefin reacts very strongly with the substrate to form FeS, the overbased calcium sulfonate does not react strongly with the substrate unless sulfurized olefin present.

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