Rolling-noise between wheel and rail is a serious problem on the Japanese railway. The authors have reported that rolling-noise is affected by the roughness with about 10–50mm wavelength on a wheel surface. And they thought that two tribological factors increase the wheel roughness. The one is that a wheel surface wears out irregularly when the slipping between wheel and rail generates. The other is that the chemical elements of brake shoes transfer to the wheel surface. The authors investigate the characteristics of roughness produced by these two factors using a testing machine.

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