Many of the aerodynamic phenomena contributing to the observed effects on wind turbines are now known, but the details of the flow are still poorly understood and are challenging to predict accurately, issues discussed herein include the modeling of the induced velocity field produced by the vortical wake behind the turbine, the various unsteady aerodynamic issues associated with the blade sections, and the intricacies of dynamic stall. Fundamental limits exist in the capabilities of all models, and misunderstandings or ambiguities can also arise in how these models should be properly applied. A challenge for analysts is to use complementary experimental measurements and modeling techniques to better understand the aerodynamic problems found on wind turbines, and to develop more rigorous models with wider ranges of application.

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