The gas-cooled reactor design with spherical fuel elements, referred to as high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR or HTR reactors) or pebble bed reactors has been already suggested by Farrington Daniels in the late 1940s; also referred to as Daniels’ pile reactor design. Under Rudolf Schulten the first pebble bed reactor, the 46MWth AVR Juelich reactor (Atom Versuchs-Reactor Jülich) was built in the late 1960s. It was in operation for 22 years and extensive testing confirmed its inherent safety.

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