The gas-cooled reactor design with spherical fuel elements, referred to as high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR or HTR reactors) or pebble bed reactors has been already suggested by Farrington Daniels in the late 1940s; also referred to as Daniels’ pile reactor design. Under Rudolf Schulten the first pebble bed reactor, the 46MWth AVR Juelich reactor (Atom Versuchs-Reactor Jülich) was built in the late 1960s. It was in operation for 22 years and extensive testing confirmed its inherent safety.
Gas-Cooled Modular Reactors With Spherical Fuel Elements — Their Inherent Safety and Applications Not Just for Power Generation
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Jaeger, W, Hamel, HJ, & Termuehlen, H. "Gas-Cooled Modular Reactors With Spherical Fuel Elements — Their Inherent Safety and Applications Not Just for Power Generation." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 Small Modular Reactors Symposium. ASME 2014 Small Modular Reactors Symposium. Washington, DC, USA. April 15–17, 2014. V001T01A002. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SMR2014-3311
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