Morphing airfoils present an effective approach to managing the different requirements in each segment of a mission profile (e.g., takeoff/landing, cruise, and active maneuvering). In this work, an approach to morphing airfoil design that couples aerodynamic performance and internal structural configuration is detailed. The internal structural topology is formulated using a Lindenmayer System (L-System) coupled with a graph-based interpreter known as Spatial Interpretation for Development of Reconfigurable Structures (SPIDRS). The L-System encodes design variables that are interpreted via SPIDRS graphical operations and governs the development of the internal configuration (composed of elastic structural members and actuators). The global optimization uses a weakly coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) scheme for a first-order estimation of the aeroelastic loads that are critical for airfoil aerodynamic performance and structural integrity. Each airfoil is evaluated in two states: a standard non-actuated state to determine performance in standard operating conditions (e.g., cruise) and a high lift state, where internal shape memory alloy actuators are deformed to create a high lift configuration for the airfoil (e.g., takeoff/landing). Evaluating the aerodynamic performance of airfoils in these two states results in a series of potential solutions that best manage the tradeoff between aerodynamic metrics for both evaluated cases.

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