A new analytical model is proposed for superelastic helical SMA springs subjected to axial loading. The model is derived based on the ZM constitutive model for SMAs and is applicable to springs with index greater than 4 and pitch angle greater than 15°, which are common specifications in engineering applications. The analytical axial force-deformation relation for the helical spring is derived taking into account phase transformation within the SMA and the model is validated against 3D finite element analysis results.

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