Robust and predictable aerodynamic performance of unmanned aerial vehicles at the limits of their design envelope is critical for safety and mission adaptability. In order for a fixed wing aircraft to maintain the lift necessary for sustained flight at very low speeds and large angles of attack (AoA), the wing shape has to change. This is often achieved by using deployable aerodynamic surfaces, such as flaps or slats, from the wing leading or trailing edges. In nature, one such device is a feathered structure on birds’ wings called the alula. The span of the alula is 5% to 20% of the wing and is attached to the first digit of the wing. The goal of the current study is to understand the aerodynamic effects of the alula on wing performance. A series of wind tunnel experiments are performed to quantify the effect of various alula deployment parameters on the aerodynamic performance of a cambered airfoil (S1223). A full wind tunnel span wing, with a single alula located at the wing mid-span is tested under uniform low-turbulence flow at three Reynolds numbers, Re = 85,000, 106,00 and 146,000. An experimental matrix is developed to find the range of effectiveness of an alula-type device. The alula relative angle of attack measured measured from the mean chord of the airfoil is varied to modulate tip-vortex strength, while the alula deflection is varied to modulate the distance of the tip vortex to the wing surface. Lift and drag forces were measured using a six axis force transducer. The lift and drag coefficients showed the greatest sensitivity to the the alula relative angle of attack, increasing the normalized lift coefficient by as much as 80%. Improvements in lift are strongly correlated to higher alula angle, with β = 0° – 5°, while reduction in the drag coefficient is observed with higher alula tip deflection ratios and lower β angles. Results show that, as the wing angle of attack and Reynolds number are increased, the overall lift co-efficient improvement is diminished while the reduction in drag coefficient is higher.

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