In the paper, we discuss the development of a model for PZT bimorph actuators used to power micro-air vehicles including Robobee. Due to highly dynamic drive regimes required for the actuators, models must quantify the nonlinear, hysteretic, and rate-dependent behavior inherent to PZT in these regimes. We employ the homogenized energy model (HEM) framework to model the actuator dynamics and numerically we illustrate the capability of the model to characterize the inherent hysteresis. This provides a comprehensive model, which can be inverted and implemented for certain control regimes.

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