Enhancement of structure-borne wave energy harvesting is investigated by exploiting metamaterial-based and metamaterial-inspired electroelastic systems. The concepts of wave focusing, funneling, and localization are leveraged to establish novel Metamaterial–Energy Harvester (MEH) configurations. The MEH system transforms the incoming structure-borne wave energy into electrical energy by coupling the metamaterial and electroelastic domains. The energy harvesting component of the work employs piezoelectric transduction due to the high power density and ease of application offered by piezoelectric materials. Therefore, in all MEH configurations studied in this work, the metamaterial system is combined with piezoelectric energy harvesting for enhanced electricity generation from waves propagating in elastic structures. Experiments are conducted to validate the dramatic performance enhancement in MEH systems as compared to using the same volume of piezoelectric patch in the absence of the metamaterial component. It is shown that MEH systems can be used for both broadband and tuned wave energy harvesting. Examples include (1) wave guiding using an acoustic funnel, (2) wave focusing using a metamaterial-inspired elliptical acoustic mirror (both for broadband energy harvesting), and (3) energy localization using an imperfection in a 2-D lattice structure (for tuned energy harvesting).

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