Piezoelectric energy harvesters have recently captured a lot of attention in research and technology. They employ the piezoelectric effect, which is the separation of charge within a material as a result of an applied strain, to turn what would otherwise be wasted energy into usable energy. This energy can then be used to support remote sensing systems, batteries, and other types of wireless MEMS devices. Such self powered systems are particularly attractive where hardwiring may not be feasible or numerous battery sources unreasonable. The source of excitation for these systems can include direct actuation, natural or mechanical vibrations, or fluid energy (aerodynamic or hydrodynamic). Fluid based energy harvesting is increasingly pursued due to the ubiquitous nature of the excitation source as well as the strong correlation with other types of excitation. Vortex-induced vibrations as well as vibrations induced by bluff bodies have been investigated to determine potential gains. The shape and size of these bluff bodies has been modeled in order to achieve the maxim power potential of the system. Other studies have focused on aeroelastic fluttering which relies on the natural frequency of two structural modes being achieved through aerodynamic forces. Rather than a single degree of freedom, as seen in the VIV approach, aeroelastic flutter requires two degrees of freedom to induce its vibrational state. This has been modeled through a wing section attached to a cantilevered beam via a revolute joint. To accurately model the behavior of these systems several types of dampening must be considered. Fluid flow excitation introduces the component of dampening via fluid dynamics in addition to structural dampening and electrical dampening from the piezoelectrics themselves. Air flow speed modifies the aerodynamic dampening and it has been shown that at the flutterer boundary the aerodynamic dampening dissipates while the oscillations remain. However, such a system state exhibits a decaying power output due to the shunt dampening effect of the power generation itself. Research in energy harvesting is quickly progressing but much has yet to be discovered. The focus of this paper will be fluid as a source of excitation and the development that has followed thus far. Configurations and applications of previous works will be examined followed by suggestions of new research works to move forward in the field.

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