This paper reviews the research results, characteristics, modeling and recent developments of smart materials specially shape memory alloys and smart composites. This field even involves smart fluids and it opens a new era to find new smart materials for eliminating their flaws by combination with other advanced materials. The purpose of this paper is showing the current research coordinate. These issues help to have a technological reference for these materials. At the end, there is specific attention to Nitinols and by experiments is shown that Oliver-Pharr formulation does not cover these material behaviors. These experiments cover some important aspects of Nitinols which have not been considered by current researches.

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