This paper investigated the physical and electromechanical properties of polypyrrole thin films that were prepared using electrochemical synthesis techniques. The morphology, mass, and thickness of the as-made films were examined when the processing parameters were varied in terms of synthesis voltage, deposition time, and polarization time. Upon actuation of the polypyrrole bi-layer, there were similar trends for both morphology and bending displacement with varying deposition and polarization times as well as actuation voltages. A general relationship between morphology and bending displacement was observed when the processing parameters were varied.

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