Bone remodeling is a function of the stress applied to the bone. In the case of the glenohumeral (GH) joint, an initial external rotation of the humerus (retrotorsion) at birth derotates with age, as normal processes are anterior to the shoulder, such that the humerus is comparatively internally rotated (anterotorsion) by adulthood 1,2. However, in the case of certain athletes, such as pitchers, an overhead throwing motion has been shown to resist the anterotorsion process by means of strong, external torque around the humeral growth plate 3,4.
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Humeral Torsion and Shoulder Biomechanics: Comparison of a Novel Ultrasonographic Technique and the Computed Tomography Benchmark
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Thurston, B, Thigpen, C, Bailey, L, Shanley, E, Desjardins, J, Kissenberth, M, Sauers, E, & Harman, M. "Humeral Torsion and Shoulder Biomechanics: Comparison of a Novel Ultrasonographic Technique and the Computed Tomography Benchmark." Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Volume 1B: Extremity; Fluid Mechanics; Gait; Growth, Remodeling, and Repair; Heart Valves; Injury Biomechanics; Mechanotransduction and Sub-Cellular Biophysics; MultiScale Biotransport; Muscle, Tendon and Ligament; Musculoskeletal Devices; Multiscale Mechanics; Thermal Medicine; Ocular Biomechanics; Pediatric Hemodynamics; Pericellular Phenomena; Tissue Mechanics; Biotransport Design and Devices; Spine; Stent Device Hemodynamics; Vascular Solid Mechanics; Student Paper and Design Competitions. Sunriver, Oregon, USA. June 26–29, 2013. V01BT61A008. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2013-14594
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