Bone remodeling is a function of the stress applied to the bone. In the case of the glenohumeral (GH) joint, an initial external rotation of the humerus (retrotorsion) at birth derotates with age, as normal processes are anterior to the shoulder, such that the humerus is comparatively internally rotated (anterotorsion) by adulthood 1,2. However, in the case of certain athletes, such as pitchers, an overhead throwing motion has been shown to resist the anterotorsion process by means of strong, external torque around the humeral growth plate 3,4.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.