Conditions such as diabetes and obesity have been found to affect the mechanical integrity of bone. Studies have shown that diabetic rodent models exhibit lower levels of new bone formation during fracture healing 1, lower bone mineral density (BMD) 2, and increased risk of fracture 3. There are differences, however, in the bone integrity of bone samples from type I and type II diabetics, which is most likely due to obesity 2. Findings from research on obesity’s effects on bone integrity have been controversial; although there is an increase in bone mineral density (BMD) with increasing body mass index (BMI) and a decrease in fracture incidence in the central body regions in obese women compared to healthy weight women due to soft tissue padding, there is an increase in fracture incidence at extremeties 4. Other studies have shown that while cortical bone strength may not be adversely affected by high-fat diets, cancellous bone BMD and mechanical strength was significantly lower in high-fat diet mice than low-fat diet mice 5. In addition, extreme obesity has been associated with lower BMD despite the general trend of increased BMD with higher BMI 6.

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