Congestive heart failure has reached epidemic proportions in the United States with more than 5.7 million patients suffering from it annually ( 1). Due to the limited availability of donor hearts, patients in their late stage heart failure who may require cardiac transplantation are dying while waiting for a matched heart. Mechanical circulatory support devices (MCS), such as ventricular assist devices (VAD), are utilized as a bridge to transplantation, and recently as destination therapy for extending the life of these patients. Continuous-flow VAD offer a surgical advantage over older generation pulsatile-flow VAD due to their compact design; however, due to the high RPM these VADs are operated with and the non-physiological blood flow patterns they generates, VADs are burdened with high incidence of thromboembolic events, and antiplatelet/anticoagulation regimens are mandated for the device recipients.

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