Type I collagen, the most abundant extracellular matrix component in the body, exists as fibers that are organized in wavy parallel fibers in many tissues [1, 2]. Cells embedded within this wavy pattern exhibit a 3D morphology that undulates with the fibers. The phenomenon that cell morphology follows substrate structure, such as cell elongation when attached to fibrous materials, is known as contact guidance [3]. As the cytoskeleton supports cellular structures and mediate numerous intracellular processes, changes to the cytoskeleton structures lead to modified cell behaviors and even fate [4, 5]. Studies have shown that fibroblasts express more ligament phenotypic markers when cultured on straight micropatterns or aligned fibers [6, 7]. However, few studies have investigated the influences of the wavy structures. To characterize the effects of the wavy structure, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fibroblasts were seeded in wavy microgrooves and their morphological responses were analyzed.

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