Skeletal muscle loss, through injuries, myopathies, and interventional medicine, presents major challenges in physiological function and clinical interventions [1]. Autologous tissue transplantation necessitates tissue loss from the donor site, and autologous grafts do not attain the strength of the original tissue. Exogenous tissue grafting faces similar strength issues, as well as the added challenge of immunorejection [2,3]. In vitro skeletal muscle tissue engineering holds promise for addressing these issues. However, these tissues have not yet shown proper dynamic response when compared to physiological muscle [2]. Mechanical and electrical stimulation have shown promise in improving construct properties [4], but mainly limited to 2D and scaffold-based constructs.

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