Shoulder-related pain in the general adult population has been estimated to be between 6.9 and 26% (potentially 1 in 4 people will experience shoulder dysfunction in their lifetime). Thirty age and gender matched subjects were tested using a specially designed device to measure torque during internal/external shoulder rotation. Subjects with shoulder pain had a decreased shoulder range of motion and increased torque at full internal and external rotation. This device was able to objectively distinguish the amount of stiffness between two populations of subjects.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.