Contact models can be incorporated into multi-body simulations to compute the loads resulting from surface-surface interactions. In musculoskeletal biomechanics, the need to model contact arises when bone-bone, foot-ground, implant-implant, and human-orthotic interactions occur. However, contact models are computationally expensive and thus can be prohibitive for studies that require repeated function evaluations, such as optimizations and forward dynamic simulations.

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