Detailed knowledge of joint kinematics and loading is essential for improving the design and surgical outcomes of total knee replacements as well as tissue engineering applications. Dynamic loading is a contributing factor in the development of joint osteoarthritis and in total knee replacement wear. Dynamic computational models in which muscle, ligament, and joint loads are predicted concurrently would be ideal clinical tools for surgery planning and for implant design. An important obstacle in clinical applications of computational models is validation of the estimated in-vivo loads.

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