Development of a small-diameter vascular graft (<6 mm) have been challenging due to thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia [1]. To overcome this problem, cardiovascular tissue engineers have attempted to construct a highly porous and biocompatible fibrous scaffold providing a sufficient mechanical strength for the regeneration of a functional tissue [2–5]. Herein, we present a 3D tubular-shaped micro/nanofibrous composite-layered scaffold for vascular tissue engineering. The surface of scaffold has high surface roughness by introducing nanofibrous layer and the biophysical properties have been fulfilled by using microfibrous layer. Moreover, the atomized spraying technique is applied to spray elastin proteins, which is well known as an antithrombogenic material, on the surface of micro/nanofibrous composite-layered scaffold to introduce an appropriate antithrombogenic surface.

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