In Vitro models are being used as a bridge between animal and human studies. Being able to reproduce specific tissue-like structures, functions and responses in a way that is more physiologically relevant allows for huge advantages for tissue engineering, pharmaco-toxicology and food research. These systems are not designed to be directly implanted into patients, but can be used to study human tissue physiology and pathophysiology in vitro. In vitro models are based on human cells, which can capture the responses of the human body, particularly those that are species specific. Models of tissues and organs can give enhanced predictive power, particularly for large-scale screening assays and to understand complex disease pathology.

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