Background: During conventional cryopreservation, cells are often damaged by ice formation. An alternative approach is to use ultra-rapid cooling rates to achieve vitrification of cell suspension. A variety of systems and methods have been developed, e.g. open pulled straws (OPS), closed pulled straws (CPS), cryo-loop and micro-droplets, by which cooling/warming rates up to 104∼105 °C/min can be achieved[1]. Although these methods have been well used in some areas, they are still far from perfect because (1) the cooling/warming rates are still not fast enough and thus high-concentration cryoprotectants should be used; (2) the sample size is often seriously limited.

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