A microchannel-based hemodialyzer offers a novel approach to hemodialysis practice and holds many promises to improve kidney patients’ life quality and dialysis treatment efficiency. The hallow fiber hemodialyzer, a conventional dialysis device, has certain limitations including non-uniformity of the dialysate flow path which necessitates the use of a high dialysate flow rate. The microchannel-based hemodialyzer with flat membranes remarkably improves the mass transfer characteristics and enables the design of a smaller and less expensive unit with lower dialysate-to-blood flow rate ratios [1, 2]. In the microchannel-based design, successive stacked layers alternate between blood flow and dialysate flow. A porous membrane between these layers allows for the transport of toxins from blood side to dialysis fluid side. A schematic view of a single layer is shown in Fig. 1.

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