Despite the increasing burden of cardiovascular disease, vascular tissue engineering strategies have had limited success in achieving long-term patency in grafts less than 4 mm in diameter. Graft failure is often due to occlusion by thrombosis or intimal hyperplasia. Recognizing the capacity of endothelial cells (ECs) to properly coordinate these processes in vivo, much research has investigated the use of ECs to line the lumens of vascular grafts to improve patency (Zilla et al. 1994). However, the limited availability of autologous ECs and the donor site morbidity resulting from EC harvest has limited the clinical potential of these cellularized constructs.

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