Living tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV) may circumvent ongoing problems in pediatric valve replacements, offering optimum hemodynamic performance and the potential for growth, remodeling, and self-repair [1]. TEHV have been constructed by seeding vascular-derived autologous cells onto biodegradable scaffolds and exhibited enhanced extracellular matrix (ECM) development when cultured under pulsatile flow conditions in-vitro [2]. After functioning successfully for up to 8 months in the pulmonary circulation of growing lambs, TEHV underwent extensive in vivo remodeling and structural evolution and have demonstrated the feasibility of engineering living heart valves in vitro [3]. The employment of novel cell sources, which are clinically obtainable in principle such as bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), is key to achieve viable clinical application [4].

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