Chronic deep venous insufficiency (CDVI) is a disease caused by incompetent venous valves in the deep veins which result in venous reflux and pooling of blood in the lower extremities. Symptoms include edema, skin changes, and ulceration. It is estimated that over six million people in the United States are affected by this disease and symptoms can be recurring, leading to an underestimation of the prevalence. The current treatments of CDVI are management techniques to encourage blood flow and oxygen transport, including compression, elevation, and exercise; strategies to repair or replace the incompetent valves are lacking.

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