The optic nerve head (ONH) is the site of insult in glaucoma, the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is commonly regarded as a major factor in the onset and progression of the disease1 and lowering IOP is the only clinical treatment that has been shown to retard the onset and progression of glaucoma2. However, many patients continue to progress even at an epidemiologically-determined normal level of IOP3. This suggests that in addition to the mean value of IOP, IOP fluctuations could be a factor in glaucomatous pathophysiology. The importance of low frequency fluctuations of clinically-measured mean IOP remains controversial. These studies all rely on snapshot measurements of mean IOP at each time point, and those measurements are taken at relatively infrequent intervals (hourly at the most frequent, but usually monthly or longer). Recently however, there has been some interest in ocular pulse amplitude, or the fluctuation in IOP associated with the cardiac cycle, which can be measured by Dynamic Contour Tonometry (DCT). DCT provides continuous measurement of IOP, but only for a period of tens of seconds in which a patient can tolerate corneal contact without blinking or eye movement, which ironically are two of the most common sources of large high frequency IOP fluctuations according to our telemetric data collected from monkeys4 and previous human studies. In a recent report, continuous IOP telemetry was used in three nonhuman primates to characterize IOP dynamics at multiple time scales for multiple 24-hour periods5.
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Nycthemeral Rhythm of the Frequency and Biomechanical Energy of High Frequency Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations
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Libertiaux, V, Seigfreid, WP, Fazio, MA, Reynaud, JF, Burgoyne, CF, & Downs, JC. "Nycthemeral Rhythm of the Frequency and Biomechanical Energy of High Frequency Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations." Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Bioengineering Conference. Volume 1A: Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms; Active and Reactive Soft Matter; Atherosclerosis; BioFluid Mechanics; Education; Biotransport Phenomena; Bone, Joint and Spine Mechanics; Brain Injury; Cardiac Mechanics; Cardiovascular Devices, Fluids and Imaging; Cartilage and Disc Mechanics; Cell and Tissue Engineering; Cerebral Aneurysms; Computational Biofluid Dynamics; Device Design, Human Dynamics, and Rehabilitation; Drug Delivery and Disease Treatment; Engineered Cellular Environments. Sunriver, Oregon, USA. June 26–29, 2013. V01AT05A018. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2013-14776
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