Multiscale computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are fast gaining importance in the field of respiratory systems modeling due to recent advancements in experimental and computational techniques. These models couple imaging-based, physiologically realistic, three-dimensional (3D) geometries to lower-dimensional ordinary differential equations (ODE) or partial differential equations (PDE) that represent the unseen lung. Local deviations from nominal heterogeneity and compliance in disease states such as emphysema and fibrosis have both important clinical and pathological implications. Hence, it is important to incorporate regional heterogeneity in the CFD models while modeling airflow characteristics, aerosol deposition, drug delivery, and risk assessment.

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