Thermal ablation in the context of this study refers to destroying cancer cells by heating them to supraphysiological temperatures for appropriate times. Once the tumor cells and a small layer of surrounding tissue cells are killed, they are absorbed by the body over time. Compared to open surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, thermal therapy can be less expensive and pose less risk of harmful post-procedural complications, while possessing the potential to be effective [1]. Currently microwave and radiofrequency ablation are in use for local hyperthermia; however, they lack the ability to focus heat into the target zones effectively or treat larger tumors without affecting the surrounding healthy tissue. In the current study, high frequency ultrasound (US) ablation is examined as a treatment modality because of its ability to focus and control heat effectively. Objectives of this study are to 1) develop thermal-damage correlations for US thermal therapy and 2) design delivery devices and associated treatment planning protocols. To achieve these goals, thermal damage information is first evaluated for a variety of cells and tissues from published data or pilot experiments. Required US dose levels are determined next through numerical experiments, followed by device design and estimation of thermal coagulation contours by comparing the temperature-history data against the thermal-damage data. Based on the analysis of the results for a range of parameters, namely, the applicator power, geometry, frequency, coolant parameters, treatment time, and tissue perfusion, treatment protocols are developed. Intraluminal, external, and interstitial modes of delivery are considered for focal sites in a variety of target areas. In the following sections, methods followed and sample results obtained are presented.

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