Many single-phase, solid mechanics computational models of skeletal muscle have been created based on the assumptions that skeletal muscle is hyperelastic, transversely isotropic,1,2 and isovolumic. However, muscle has also been observed to have non-linear time-dependent behaviors that can be modeled using viscoelasticity or poroelasticity. The inherent viscoelasticity of muscle may not fully explain the time-dependent nature that may arise from extracellular fluid filtration3 and redistribution4 within the tissue. Further, intramuscular pressure (IMP) has been shown to have a heterogeneous distribution in muscle. This may be attributable to the movement of extracellular fluid, but the mechanisms of fluid redistribution are not completely understood. While a viscoelastic model may predict time-dependent responses of skeletal muscle, viscoelastic theory does not explain underlying causative tissue behaviors.5

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