Different types of physiological amplitude (40–250 mV/mm) [1] electric fields (EFs) have been shown to influence a wide variety of biological systems [2] and have been used as a therapeutic tool for tissue repair [3]. There has been emerging evidence that certain types of EFs can promote angiogenesis and tissue vascularization [4]. Studies have shown that direct current EF and pulsed EF induced angiogenic responses including cell migration, VEGF release and cytoskeletal reorganization in human endothelial cells (HUVECs) [4, 5]. Similarly different types of EF induced the activation of intracellular MAPK pathways in several non-endothelial cell types. [6, 7]. However, the effect of EF with different modalities on endothelial angiogenic responses and the intracellular pathways remain unknown.

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