Retrospective examinations of real-world injury data is often used to evaluate injury risk for exposure to hazards, e.g. car crashes. In studying injury resulting from passenger vehicle crashes, there are several sources of real-world data that contain information about the crashes (e.g. vehicle damage, impact speeds) as well as occupant injury outcome. These real-world crash databases are used, for example, to study risk of traumatic brain injury, countermeasure opportunities for far-side occupants in side impact, and spleen injury for different restraint types [1–3].

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