With over 33 million people infected with the human immunodefeciency virus (HIV-1), HIV-1 and autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a worldwide epidemic [1]. However, the development and widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has helped transform HIV-1 infection from a terminal disease leading to AIDS to a manageable chronic condition. With the increase in life expectancy, a new set of non-AIDS related complications has emerged including dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) specifically high risks for myocardial infarction[2] and increased incidence of atherosclerosis [3]. Additionally, patients exhibit markers of subclinical atherosclerosis including endothelial dysfunction [4], carotid artery intima-media thickening [5], and arterial stiffening [4, 6].

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.