It has been estimated that worldwide 600,000 babies are born annually with significant congenital heart disease (1). Congenital heart and related vascular defects cause increased flow and pulmonary pressure leading to unfavorable vascular remodeling that results in pulmonary arterial hypertension (1). Developing tissue engineered replacements that mimic the growth and remodeling behavior of native tissue is the optimal approach in treatment of congenital arterial anomalies. The understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as replicating native pulmonary artery functionality in engineered replacements requires knowledge of native tissue mechanics and growth behavior. In the present study, we report novel information on the changes in the structure-mechanics behavior of the growing pulmonary artery.

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