Micro computed tomography (μCT) has been widely used to study 3-dimensional (3D) microstructure of bone specimens. In the recent decade, in vivo μCT scanners have become available to monitor longitudinal bone changes in rodents (1,2). The current in vivo μCT scan can obtain images with an isotropic voxel size up to 10.5 μm, which is high enough for direct 3D bone microstructural analyses. Moreover, based on these high-resolution images, micro finite element (μFE) models can be generated to estimate mechanical properties of bone. Therefore, by using in vivo μCT imaging and μFE analysis techniques, changes in geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties of rodent bone, in response to either diseases or treatments, can be visualized and quantified over time.

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