Neonatal brachial plexus injuries during childbirth can cause shoulder paralysis in 1 out of every 250 births in the United States.1,2 Although 80% of these infants recover spontaneously and have no residual complications, a number of them have persistent paralysis and functional deficits.1,3,4 Surgeons are thus faced with a choice on if and when to intervene. However, the time course of persistent paralysis leading to permanent functional defects in the neonate is unclear.

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