Intensive studies were reported on the osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) using chemicals and mechanical loading. However, the maturity of differentiated osteoblasts is not same as that of isolated adult osteoblasts. Thermal treatment could be a missing factor in stem cell differentiation. It was reported that mild heat stimulated bone growth in animal experiments [1–2]. Thermal treatment is also used as a therapy to promote bone repair after injury [3]. In addition, hot shower daily is recommended to osteoarthritis patients. However, the mechanisms for the heat-induced osteogenesis are not completely known and the thermal regulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) differentiation is not well studied. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS) on the differentiation of hMSCs into osteoblasts in self-assembling peptide hydrogel were investigated.

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