Although not life-threatening, lower limb injuries are the most frequent injury of moderate severity (AIS 2), sustained in a vehicle crash (Pattimore et al., 1991). To better understand the injury mechanisms, several lower extremity (LEX) finite element (FE) models were developed to investigate traffic accidents involving occupants in vehicles (Yang et al., 2006). The main limitations of existing lower limb FE models are due to their geometries, the modeling approaches used to represent their components, and limited test data used for the model validation.

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