Many biological soft tissues exhibit a charged solid matrix, most often due to the presence of proteoglycans enmeshed within the matrix. The predominant solute content of the interstitial fluid of these tissues consists of the monovalent counter-ions Na+ and Cl. The electrical interactions between the mobile ion species and fixed charge density of the solid matrix produces an array of mechano-electrochemical effects, including Donnan osmotic swelling, and streaming and diffusion potentials and currents. These phenomena have been successfully modeled by the triphasic theory of Lai et al. [1], which is based on the framework of mixture theory [2]. Other similar frameworks have also been proposed [3, 4]. The equations of triphasic theory are nonlinear, even in the range of infinitesimal strains. Therefore, numerical schemes are generally needed to solve all but the simplest problems using this framework.

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