In the US, cardiovascular disease accounts for more than 800,000 deaths and an economic burden of nearly $300 billion per year. A major pathology afflicting the cardiovascular system is atherosclerosis, characterized by intraluminal plaque formation, producing a stenosis and obstructing flow. Balloon angioplasty, often coupled with the implantation of either a bare-metal or drug-eluting stent, has become a standard treatment of atherosclerosis. However, the host tissue’s response to stenting is frequently maladaptive, leading to intimal hyperplasia via smooth muscle cell (SMC) division and migration to the intima, and increased matrix protein synthesis, all contributing to restenosis of the vessel.

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