In spine testing, methods have been developed to apply pure moments to a single axis of the spine to elucidate the mechanical properties of the spine. The application of those concepts continues to be applied with custom loading frames, custom robotics systems, and adaptation of commercial robotic technology. With these systems and pure moment testing, spinal biomechanics variables such as the neutral zone and range of motion can be determined. As more complex testing systems with higher degrees of freedom (DOF) capabilities are developed, dynamic testing becomes a possibility. However, these more complex testing systems require more complex control schemes.

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