Movement simulation and musculoskeletal modeling can predict muscle forces, but current methods are hindered by simplified representations of joint structures. Simulations that incorporate muscle forces, an anatomical representation of the natural knee, and contact mechanics would be a powerful tool in orthopedics. This study combined a validated anatomical model of a knee joint with menisci and a musculoskeletal model of the human lower extremity. A forward-dynamics muscle driven simulation of the stance phase of a walk cycle was simulated in LifeMOD (Lifemodeler, Inc) and muscle forces and ground reaction forces were estimated. The predicted forces were evaluated using test data provided by Vaughan CL. et al. (1999).

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