Modern biomechanical models often include many degrees of freedom, complex joint geometry, and hundreds of muscles [1]. Such complex models may provide realistic representations of musculoskeletal dynamics, but they require a great deal of time to simulate. The state equations of the muscles are frequently the stiffest numerical element in a biomechanical model and determine the simulation time. Here we introduce a muscle model that generates similar forces as a conventional muscle model, but requires fewer explicit integration steps.

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