Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS) consists of vascular, sensorineural and musculoskeletal disorders and affects around 1.7–5.8% of industrial workers. In this study, a rat-tail vibration injury model is used to assess early vascular damage due to HAVS, manifested in the form of endothelial cell vacuolation and oxidative injury. Tails were vibrated at two frequencies 125Hz and 250Hz for 4hr/day for 1 and 5 days (49m/s2). Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining was done to assess gross changes in artery sections and toluidine blue stain was done for vacuole counting. Immunohistochemical (IHC) methods were used to detect Nitrotyrosine, a potent biomarker of cell inflammation and oxidative stress. The vacuole count in Endothelial Cells (ECs) was not statistically significant after 1 and 5 days for any frequency. However IHC images showed significant oxidative damage in Endothelial Cells (ECs) with considerable oxidative damage being induced as early as 1 day for both 125Hz and 250Hz frequencies, with more EC damage induced by 250Hz frequency after 5 days. These findings indicate that higher frequency vibrations can cause severe oxidative damage to EC.

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