Throwing arm injuries are common and often related to shoulder rotational laxity. Both shoulder external and internal rotational laxity are often checked in a physical assessment. The shoulder external rotation of the throwing arm during physical assessment is reported to be about 10 degree greater than the non-throwing arm . Throwing arm injuries often occur during throwing activities. High forces and torques were generated during throwing activity. Extremely high shoulder external rotation (about 180°) and high internal rotation velocity (over 7000°/s) during baseball pitching are reported .
- Bioengineering Division
Shoulder Rotational Laxity is Related to Joint Loading During Throwing
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Zheng, N, Wang, H, & Eaton, K. "Shoulder Rotational Laxity is Related to Joint Loading During Throwing." Proceedings of the ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference. ASME 2011 Summer Bioengineering Conference, Parts A and B. Farmington, Pennsylvania, USA. June 22–25, 2011. pp. 847-848. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/SBC2011-53494
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