Cervical disc degeneration is a common and potentially debilitating disease. Over 100,000 surgical procedures are performed per year in the US to treat degenerative cervical spines1. However, the in vivo kinematics and arthrokinematics of the cervical spine have yet to be adequately characterized due to the inability to precisely track vertebral movement during dynamic motion. We have recently established the validity of a set of tools, including a biplane x-ray system, a model-based tracking technique and custom software, to precisely measure in vivo cervical spine kinematics and arthrokinematics with sub-millimeter accuracy2. Consequently, we can now begin to investigate the interdependent relationship between cervical vertebral kinematics and disc morphology and mechanical properties.

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